- Surgical instruments can vary widely by the field of surgery that they are used in. In general instruments can be divided into five classes by function:
Cutting and dissecting instruments:
- Scalpels, scissors, and saws are the most traditional
- Elevators can be both cutting and lifting/retracting
- Although the term dissection is broad energy devices such as diathermy/cautery are often used as more modern alternatives.
Grasping or holding instruments:
- Classically this included forceps and clamps predominantly
- Roughly forceps can be divided in traumatic (tissue crushing) and atraumatic (tissue preserving, such as Debakey's)
- Numerous examples are available for different purposes by field
- This includes instruments utilized for the cessation of bleeding
- Artery forceps are a classic example in which bleeding is halted by direct clamping of a vessel
- Sutures are often used, aided by a needle holder
- Cautery and related instruments are used with increasing frequency in high resource countries
- Surgery is often considered to be largely about exposure
- A multitude of retractors exist to aid in exposing the bodies cavities accessed during surgery
- These can broadly be hand held (often by a junior assistant) or self retaining
- Elevators can be both cutting and lifting/retracting
Tissue unifying instruments and materials:
- This would include instruments that aid in tissue unification (such as needle holders or staple applicators)
- And the materials themselves
- Instruments used in surgery are:
- This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
Instrument class Image Uses Specific instruments Articulator Galotti articulator Bone chisel Cutting instrument Pin cutter To cut the pins after they are used to place bone in correct place Bone distractor Clamps and distractors llizarov apparatus Accessories and implants Intramedullary kinetic bone distractor Clamps and distractors Bone drill To drill inside the bone Elevator Accessories and implants Bone mallet Accessories Bone rasp Cutting instruments Bone saw Cutting instruments Bone skid Bone splint Bone button Caliper To measure Castroviejo caliper Cannula Accessories and implants Spackmann Cannula Cautery To cauterize and seal vessels and bone, using electricity Curette for scraping or debriding biological tissue or debris in a biopsy, excision, or cleaning procedure Cutting instrument Depressor Dilator Accessories and implants Dissecting knife cutting instrument surgical Pinzette Grasping/holding Dermatome To take off a top layer of skin to implant over another area. Forceps, Dissecting Grasping/holding. Usually used in skin closure or small wounds Adson Forceps, Tissue Grasping/holding tissue Allis Penatrating towel clamp Used to secure towels or reduce bone fragments Backhaus penetating towel clamp Acanthulus or Acanthabolos Thorn removal Bone forceps Grasping/holding Carmalt forceps haemostatic forceps kalabasa Cushing forceps grasping/holding Non-toothed dissecting forceps Dandy forceps haemostatic forceps DeBakey forceps grasping/holding Non-toothed dissecting forceps designed for use on blood vessels, organs, or deilcate tissue Doyen intestinal clamp clamps and distractors Non-crushing clamp designed for use on the intestines Epilation forceps Tiberio forceps haemostatic forceps Kelly forceps hemostatic forceps Kocher forceps hemostatic forceps Mosquito forceps hemostatic forceps Hook retractor Nerve hook retractor Obstetrical hook retractor Skin hook retractor Lancet (scalpel) cutting Lythotome Lythotript Mallet Partsch mallet Mammotome Needle holder grasping/holding Castroviejo Crilewood Mayo-Hegar Olsen-Hegar Occluder Osteotome cutting Epker osteotome cutting Periosteal elevator cutting and lifting Joseph elevator cutting Molt periosteal elevator cutting Obweg periosteal elevator cutting Septum elevator cutting Tessier periosteal elevator cutting Periodontal probe Probe Dental explorer Retractor retractor Deaver retractor Deep wound retraction Gelpi retractor self-retaining retractor. Used for superficial wound exposure Weitlaner retractor self-retaining retractor. Used for superficial wound exposure USA-Army/Navy retractor retractor O'Connor-O'Sullivan retractor Mathieu Retractor retractor Jackson Tracheal Hook retractor Crile Retractor retractor Meyerding Finger Retractor retractor Little Retractor retractor Love Nerve Retractor retractor Green Retractor retractor Goelet Retractor retractor Cushing Vein Retractor retractor Langenbeck Retractor retractor Richardson Retractor retractor Richardson-Eastmann Retractor retractor Kelly Retractor retractor Parker Retractor retractor Parker-Mott Retractor retractor Roux Retractor retractor Mayo-Collins Retractor retractor Ribbon Retractor retractor Alm Retractor retractor Self Retaining Retractors West, Travers and Norfolk & Norwich Weitlaner Retractor Beckman-Weitlaner Retractor Beckman-Eaton Retractor Beckman Retractor Adson Retractor Rib spreader Rongeur cutting instrument Ultrasonic scalpel cutting Laser scalpel cutting Scissors cutting Iris scissors cutting Kiene scissors cutting Metzenbaum scissors To dissect delicate tissue cutting Mayo scissors To cut suture, bandages, or dressings cutting Tenotomy scissors cutting Spatula Speculum To retract the walls of the vagina Graves vaginal speculum Mouth speculum retractor Rectal speculum retractor Sim's vaginal speculum To retract the walls of the vagina Cusco's vaginal speculum retractor Sponge bowl accessories and implants Sterilization tray accessories and implants Sternal saw cutting Suction tube and Yankeur suction tip accessories and implants Surgical elevator Surgical hook retractor Surgical blade #15 Used to cut vessels or make small incisions Surgical mesh accessories and implants Surgical needle accessories and implants Surgical snare Surgical sponge Curettes GIA stapler Used to make a gastrointestinal anastamosis Linear stapler Surgical tray Suture Tongue depressor Tonsillotome Towel clamp clamp Towel forceps clamp Backhaus towel forceps Lorna towel clamp Non-penatrating towel clamp Tracheotome Tissue expander accessories and implant Subcutaneous inflatable balloon expander accessories and implants Trephine cutting instrument Trocar Access instrument. Used to create an opening into a space without opening the abdominal cavity. A camera then inserted through one to view the inside of the space while instruments are inserted through the others to manipulate the organs. Ultrasonic energy device Surgical device using electrical energy that's converted to mechanical ultrasound energy typically used to dissect tissue but also seals small vessels and tissue bundles. Vessel Sealing Device Vessel sealing device used to weld vessels together prior to cutting. These devices used bipolar radio frequency energy to create heat that welds the tissue.
- Advanced Bipolar Energy